j) Telekes A, Kiss-Tóth E, Nagy T, Qwarnstrom EE, Kúsz E, Polgár T, Resetár A, Dower SK, Duda E., Synergistic effect of Avemar on proinflammatory cytokine production and Ras-mediated cell activation, Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Jun;1051:515-28.
Macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide and/or phorbol esters exhibited high sensitivity to Avemar, a fermented wheat germ extract. Avemar synergized with lipopolysaccharide and PMA in the induction of the transcription of cytokine genes and release of inflammatory cytokines. At higher concentrations the preparation had a significant negative effect on the proliferation and survival of activated myeloid cell types. Avemar treatment induced the synthesis of ICAM-1 and synergized with the ICAM-inducing effect of TNF, but had no effect on VCAM-1 expression on microvascular endothelial cells. The effect of Avemar on signaling pathways, which are involved in cell activation was studied on HeLa cells as a model system. Avemar treatment increased the activity of stress kinases in a concentration-dependent way, resulting in the activation of AP-1 transcription factor. NF-kappa B-sensitive reporters were also activated by Avemar; in contrast, no effect of the preparation was observed on PKA-sensitive signaling pathways.
k) . N. Lee, H. Park, K. E. Leem, Cytotoxic activities of fermented wheat germ extract (Avemar) on human gastric carcinoma cells by induction of apoptosis, Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2005 ASCO Annual Meeting Proceedings. Vol 23, No. 16S, Part I of II (June 1 Supplement), 2005: 4254
Background: The fermented wheat germ extract (code name:MSC, trade name: Avemar), is a complex mixture of biologically active molecules with potent anti-metastatic activities in various human malignancies. The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of Avemar on 5 human gastric carcinoma cell lines and to test whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis. Methods: Cytotoxic activities of Avemar on 5 human gastric carcinoma cell lines (SNU-1, SNU-5, SNU-16, SNU-620, MKN-45) were examined using XTT cytotoxicity assay and apoptosis was measured by Sub-G1 fraction on flow histograms and annexin V- and propidium iodide-stained fraction on flow histogram. Results: Avemar dose-dependently suppressed the growth of all 5 examined gastric carcinoma cells by more than 90%, with ascending order of IC50 values: SNU-5 (0.37mg/mL), MKN-45 (0.49mg/mL), SNU-620 (0.52 mg/mL), SNU-1 (0.58 mg/mL) and SNU-16 (0.62mg/mL). Flow cytometry of Sub-G1 cells or annexin V- and propidium iodidestained cells indicated that the growth inhibiting effect of Avemar was consistent with a strong induction of apoptosis. Conclusions: Avemar was found to dose-dependently inhibit the growth of gastric carcinoma cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway and has a potential to be an additive or synergistic effect with cytotoxic agents.
l) Illmer C, Madlener S, Horvath Z, Saiko P, Losert A, Herbacek I, Grusch M, Krupitza G, Fritzer-Szekeres M, Szekeres T., Immunologic and biochemical effects of the fermented wheat germ extract Avemar, Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2005 Feb;230(2):144-9.
Avemar (MSC) is a nontoxic fermented wheat germ extract demonstrated to have antitumor effects. Avemar has the potential to significantly improve the survival rate in patients suffering from malignant colon tumors. We studied its effects in the HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line. Avemar had an inhibiting effect on colonies of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 118 microg/ml (7 days of incubation); this value could be decreased to 100 and 75 microg/ml in the presence of vitamin C. In the cell line examined, Avemar induced both necrosis and apoptosis, as demonstrated by Hoechst/propidium iodide staining. The incubation of cells with 3200 microg/ml Avemar for 24 hrs caused necrosis in 28% and the induction of apoptosis in 22% of the cells. Avemar inhibited the cell-cycle progression of HT-29 cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In addition, Avemar inhibited the activity of the key enzyme of de novo DNA synthesis, ribonucleotide reductase. In addition, we determined the effects of Avemar on the activity of cyclooxygenase-1 and -2. Both enzymes were significantly inhibited by Avemar with IC50 values of 100 and 300 microg/ml, respectively. We outline new explanations for its antitumor activity, which might serve as the basis for further studies using Avemar.
m) Comin-Anduix B, Boros LG, Marin S, Boren J, Callol-Massot C, Centelles JJ, Torres JL, Agell N, Bassilian S, Cascante M., Fermented wheat germ extract inhibits glycolysis/pentose cycle enzymes and induces apoptosis through poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation in Jurkat T-cell leukemia tumor cells, J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 29;277(48):46408-14. Epub 2002 Sep 25.
The fermented extract of wheat germ, trade name Avemar, is a complex mixture of biologically active molecules with potent anti-metastatic activities in various human malignancies. Here we report the effect of Avemar on Jurkat leukemia cell viability, proliferation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis, and the activity of key glycolytic/pentose cycle enzymes that control carbon flow for nucleic acid synthesis. The cytotoxic IC(50) concentration of Avemar for Jurkat tumor cells is 0.2 mg/ml, and increasing doses of the crude powder inhibit Jurkat cell proliferation in a dose-dependent fashion. At concentrations higher than 0.2 mg/ml, Avemar inhibits cell growth by more than 50% (72 h of incubation), which is preceded by the appearance of a sub-G(1) peak on flow histograms at 48 h. Laser scanning cytometry of propidium iodide- and annexin V-stained cells indicated that the growth-inhibiting effect of Avemar was consistent with a strong induction of apoptosis. Inhibition by benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp fluoromethyl ketone of apoptosis but increased proteolysis of poly(ADP-ribose) indicate caspases mediate the cellular effects of Avemar. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and transketolase were inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion, which correlated with decreased (13)C incorporation and pentose cycle substrate flow into RNA ribose. This decrease in pentose cycle enzyme activities and carbon flow toward nucleic acid precursor synthesis provide the mechanistic understanding of the cell growth-controlling and apoptosis-inducing effects of fermented wheat germ. Avemar exhibits about a 50-fold higher IC(50) (10.02 mg/ml) for peripheral blood lymphocytes to induce a biological response, which provides the broad therapeutic window for this supplemental cancer treatment modality with no toxic effects.
n) Fajka-Boja R, Hidvégi M, Shoenfeld Y, Ion G, Demydenko D, Tömösközi-Farkas R, Vizler C, Telekes A, Resetar A, Monostori E., Fermented wheat germ extract induces apoptosis and downregulation of major histocompatibility complex class I proteins in tumor T and B cell lines, Int J Oncol. 2002 Mar;20(3):563-70.
The fermented wheat germ extract (code name: MSC, trade name: Avemar), with standardized benzoquinone content has been shown to inhibit tumor propagation and metastases formation in vivo. The aim of this study was to understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the anti-tumor effect of MSC. Therefore, we have designed in vitro model experiments using T and B tumor lymphocytic cell lines. Tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins and elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration were examined using immunoblotting with anti-phosphotyrosine antibody and cytofluorimetry by means of Ca2+ sensitive fluorescence dyes, Fluo-3AM and FuraRed-AM, respectively. Apoptosis was measured with cytofluorimetry by staining the DNA with propidium iodide and detecting the cell population. The level of the cell surface MHC class I molecules was analysed with indirect immunofluorescence on cytofluorimeter using a monoclonal antibody to the non-polymorphic region of the human MHC class I. MSC stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins and the influx of extracellular Ca2+ resulted in elevation of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Prominent apoptosis of 20-40% was detected upon 24 h of MSC treatment of the cell lines. As a result of the MSC treatment, the amount of the cell surface MHC class I proteins was downregulated by 70-85% compared to the non-stimulated control. MSC did not induce a similar degree of apoptosis in healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Inhibition of the cellular tyrosine phosphatase activity or Ca2+ influx resulted in the opposite effect increasing or diminishing the Avemar induced apoptosis as well as the MHC class I downregulation, respectively. A benzoquinone component (2,6-dimethoxi-p-benzoquinone) in MSC induced similar apoptosis and downregulation of the MHC class I molecules in the tumor T and B cell lines to that of MSC. These results suggest that MSC acts on lymphoid tumor cells by reducing MHC class I expression and selectively promoting apoptosis of tumor cells on a tyrosine phosphorylation and Ca2+ influx dependent way. One of the components in MSC, 2,6-dimethoxi-p-benzoquinone was shown to be an important factor in MSC mediated cell response.
o) Boros LG, Lee WN, Go VL., A metabolic hypothesis of cell growth and death in pancreatic cancer, Pancreas. 2002 Jan;24(1):26-33.
INTRODUCTION: Tumor cells, just as other living cells, possess the potential for proliferation, differentiation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. There is a specific metabolic phenotype associated with each of these conditions, characterized by the production of both energy and special substrates necessary for the cells to function in that particular state. Unlike that of normal living cells, the metabolic phenotype of tumor cells supports the proliferative state. AIM: To present the metabolic hypothesis that (1) cell transformation and tumor growth are associated with the activation of metabolic enzymes that increase glucose carbon utilization for nucleic acid synthesis, while enzymes of the lipid and amino acid synthesis pathways are activated in tumor growth inhibition, and (2) phosphorylation and allosteric and transcriptional regulation of intermediary metabolic enzymes and their substrate availability together mediate and sustain cell transformation from one condition to another. CONCLUSION: Evidence is presented that demonstrates opposite changes in metabolic phenotypes induced by TGF-beta, a cell-transforming agent, and tumor growth-inhibiting phytochemicals such as genistein and Avemar, or novel synthetic anti-leukemic drugs such as STI571 (Gleevec). Intermediary metabolic enzymes that mediate the growth signaling pathways and promote malignant cell transformation may serve as high-efficacy nongenetic novel targets for cancer therapies.
p) Boros LG, Lapis K, Szende B, Tömösközi-Farkas R, Balogh A, Boren J, Marin S, Cascante M, Hidvégi M., Wheat germ extract decreases glucose uptake and RNA ribose formation but increases fatty acid synthesis in MIA pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells, Pancreas. 2001 Aug;23(2):141-7.
The fermented wheat germ extract with standardized benzoquinone composition has potent tumor propagation inhibitory properties. The authors show that this extract induces profound metabolic changes in cultured MIA pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells when the [1,2-13C2]glucose isotope is used as the single tracer with biologic gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. MIA cells treated with 0.1, 1, and 10 mg/mL wheat germ extract showed a dose-dependent decrease in cell glucose consumption. uptake of isotope into ribosomal RNA (2.4%, 9.4%, and 28.0%), and release of 13CO2. Conversely, direct glucose oxidation and ribose recycling in the pentose cycle showed a dose-dependent increase of 1.2%, 20.7%, and 93.4%. The newly synthesized fraction of cell palmitate and the 13C enrichment of acetyl units were also significantly increased with all doses of wheat germ extract. The fermented wheat germ extract controls tumor propagation primarily by regulating glucose carbon redistribution between cell proliferation-related and cell differentiation-related macromolecules. Wheat germ extract treatment is likely associated with the phosphorylation and transcriptional regulation of metabolic enzymes that are involved in glucose carbon redistribution between cell proliferation-related structural and functional macromolecules (RNA, DNA) and the direct oxidative degradation of glucose, which have devastating consequences for the proliferation and survival of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells in culture.
q) Cosgrove DJ, Daniels DG, Greer EN, Hutchinson JB, Moran T, Whitehead FK, Isolation of methoxy- and 2:6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone from fermented wheat germ, Nature. 1952 Jun 7;169(4310):966-7.
r) Pethig R, Gascoyne PRC , Mclaughlin JA, Szent-Gyorgyi A, Enzyme-controlled scavenging of ascorbyl and 2,6-dimethoxysemiquinone free radicals in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Cell Biology March 1985, Vol. 82, pp. 1439-1442.
s) Pethig R, Gascoyne PRC , Mclaughlin JA, Szent-Gyorgyi A, Interaction of the 2,6-dimethoxysemiquinone and ascorbyl free radicals with Ehrlich ascites cells: A probe of cell-surface charge, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Cell Biology April 1984, Vol. 81, pp. 2088-2091.
t) Pethig R, Gascoyne PRC , Mclaughlin JA, Szent-Gyorgyi A, Ascorbate-quinone interactions: Electrochemical, free radical, and cytotoxic properties, Proc. Nati Acad. Sci. USA, Biochemistry January 1983, Vol. 80, pp. 129-132.
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